- 2011/06/09(木) 13:16:12|
Different lighting of the different USES
Domestic bedroom commonly used lamps and lanterns, according to function and layont can divide the following several types:
Bull droplight and single head droplight, the former used in the sitting room, the latter for the bedroom or restaurant. Some will be LED tube light
bulb installed in white circulate, make the light scattering downy, some cover mouth down, direct light shimmering bright indoor, appears light. Still have a kind of cover mouth upward, lamplight shine to the ceiling, then spread to the light reflected off a bit weak, uniform, the luminosity downy and pleasing to the eye. Bull droplight has a variety of flower formative grind arenaceous glass lamp, have a layer and multi-layer cent, color are colorless, pure white, pink, pale blue, green, yellow, that suckles white and crystalline light etc. Single head droplight, many for milk white spherical droplight, or flowerpot shape droplight. There is a serpentine hose adjustable lift droplight, have a big chimney, by a glass or plastic two kinds of materials, the light bulb in enclosure, chimney with different shapes, colour diversity, commonly used to install at mensal upper part of the roof.
Used in the bedroom nightstand, short ark or study desk, modelling colour is protean. Usually divided into two types: process desk lamp and writing desk lamp. Process desk lamp had glass wear away, ceramic colored glaze, cloisonne enamel and plastic spraying products etc, emphasized the arts modelling and adornment effect. Writing desk lamp are metal snakeskin tubes work desk lamp, nip type spring rocker suspension desk lamp, seat type adjustable light resin desk lamp, seat type adjustable light enamel desk LED strip light
, copper seat classical pillar groove single porcelain masks desk lamp, groove double porcelain masks desk lamp, classical candlestick type desk lamp, table lamp, classical kerosene lamp type double lamp godfathers mother type glass desk lamp, etc, the function is used to read, write, for not pervious to light more than chimney to pervious to light, or half a shining concentration. Should try to use the incandescent light bulb light source, unfavorable use low wattage fluorescence GuanDeng to the person's eye, otherwise there will be unfavorable influences.
Say again to absorb dome light, widely used in hallway, corridor, kitchen and bath lavatory, balcony etc place. Days lanterns applies to low-standard times, regular decoration products. Chimney had glass and PS board two kinds, points milky white and ice pattern, form a square, long form, round, sphere, cylindrical, etc. Photometric downy, uniform, modelling is honest, generous.
According to the Tibetan lamp or half of Tibetan under according to the lamp. Under
Can decorate on the roof, the head of a bed upper part, cabinets, wait for place, still can wall, ground, hanging suspended. Vestibular, sitting room, bedroom ceiling can install several LED spot light
rectangle, tubular down at, the bathroom is installed inside the glass lamp of concave groove as light, bedroom under the bed bilateral symmetry installation as wall lamp, television under the hood under nearby outfit virescent according to wall lamp. Sculpture formative lamp under more like works of art as in recent years, wide popular.
Tracks shoot the light
Pure white or rice white metal spray or made with enamel, projected beam can focus on a painting, a sculpture, a potted flower, and even the master sat back, most can swivel create colorful artistic LED flood light
effects. Used in the sitting room, vestibular, bedroom, or establish a lamp, also can put much light. Its colour, quantity, position should be consistent with furniture tonal, the height of the ceiling is usually next 10-20 centimeters, or corner corner, function not take its illume, and focuses on adornment ornament effect.
- 2011/06/03(金) 13:20:23|
Cooling of the substrate LED species
1, introduction LED module now widely used in electronic related products, with the application scope expanding and the improving of the lighting system about since 1990, the requirement of high power, especially sharp rises in the greatest demand BaiGuangGao power type on the lighting system, now the use of plate type heat Exchangers
power has not only 1W leds, 3W, 5W even reach 10W above, so the heat of the substrate cooling effectiveness has become the most important issues. The main factors that affect the LED heat containing LED chip, chip loading board and chip packing and module material and design, and LED encapsulation materials are cumulative heat conduction modes mostly are scattered out, so the LED chip substrate and the design and LED chip packing material will become a major key.
2, thermal substrate for the influence of LED module
From 1970 LED after the began soon after a red, the evolution of LED to blu-ray and green, initial use mostly in some sign, such as home appliances to the instructions, started in 2000, BaiGuangGao power LED to the emergence of the use of LED, begin to enter another stage, such as outdoor large to see the version, small display back light source (figure 1), but with the rapid evolution of high power, expected after 2010, from vehicle lighting, indoor and special lighting growing demand, but these high power lighting equipment, its thermal efficiency requirements for PE tough, the high ceramic substrates cooling capacity and high heat resistance, air tightness, therefore, ceramic substrates for current high power LED the most commonly used one of the substrate materials.
2 cooling substrate choice
It LED strip light
chips on the development of bearing substrate to support chip is concerned, the base plate traditional PCB quality highly commercial characteristic, in the development initial period having quite LED influence. However, with the power of ascension that LED LED cooling capabilities of substrate, become one of the important material characteristics, therefore, ceramic substrates gradually become the main heat highly efficient leds substrate materials (such as table 1 shows), and gradually and widely used by market to accept. In recent years, in addition to ceramic substrates itself must be considered the material properties outside of problems, substrate, metal circuit line width, line diameter, metal surface smoothness and the requirements of adhesion of growing in the traditional thick film process makes the preparation of ceramic substrate, thus gradually don't apply use developed film type radiating ceramic substrates, this paper will target radiating ceramic substrates in thick film and film technology and product features differences make analysis.
3, radiating ceramic substrates
From the traditional PCB (FR4) board, to now ceramic substrates, LED tube light
to a higher power demand unceasingly, at this stage of development of the ceramic substrates metal lines in thick film technology molding, however thick film printing of alignment accuracy makes it couldn't keep up with LED encapsulation technology advances, its main factors at higher power LED components for the cooling design, USES the eutectic and flip chip two encapsulation technology, these techniques can be used not only the import high luminous efficiency LED chip, more can dramatically reduce its thermal resistance and let jointing degrees to be more perfect, let whole operation of power are relatively ascension. But these two jointing way of applications in need to have precise metal circuit design, so the basis of exposure lithography for contrapuntal mode of radiating ceramic substrate film circuit design for accurate will become mainstream.
Thick film printing ceramic matrix edition
Thick film process mostly used nets printing forms lines and graphics, accordingly, its integrity of circuit patterns with lines the accuracy of the matchup with printing more often changes with nets edition tension, there is a clear difference between the progressive this result will influence subsequent encapsulating techniques on the accuracy vs; Moreover, with the element size is shrinking, nets printing graphic size and resolution also has its limitations, as size narrowed, half-tone printing office present each unit of the size difference (uniformity graphics with metal thickness difference also will be more apparent. In order to line size can shrink and accuracy, LED the strict requirement of the substrate heat production technology will inevitably continue to ascend. Thus film process launch became improvement method, but one of domestic have mature ceramic substrates film metallization process technology manufacturer is numbered. for
Thin-film technology used in ceramic substrates
Film technology import is can solve the above line size reduced process bottlenecks, combined with high vacuum coating technology and HuangGuangWei shadow technology, can will circuit patterns and diminishing, size in conformity with accurate lines contrapuntal requirements, its each unit graphics size low differences (high uniformity) more traditional half-tone printing office not easy reach results. In the request, under high heat conductivity film technology already can overcome current thick film technology in the bottleneck, accuracy matchups in the blank ceramic substrates (alumina/nitriding aluminum) after pretreatment, plating after the sputtering), seed layer (through repeated exposure, beatles photoresist enhancement, again will need lines thickening (plating/chemical plating), finally after to film, etching steps make lines forming, this process of preparation of products with high precision and better the lines of the metal coating surface smoothness.
- 2011/05/03(火) 16:38:33|
African markets really need to kind of product? This is intended into African market lighting enterprise in the face of the primary issue. African market is in LED flood light
the application of the market, but low-end is not equal to the low-end low-priced, low-end more doesn't mean inferior. China lighting enterprise in product positioning exist on a deviation, mainly displays in blind pursue high brightness, big power, unfavorable to reduce costs, Chinese product itself has the cost advantage also lost. K.wang, pointed out that "the African market in product performance requirements is not very high, low cost, basic lighting function, reliable and durable, guarantee three years without replacement, operation simple product can meet the demand of the market."
At present, there are 17 million people worldwide living in a dark, only Africa there are five million people are living in without electricity area. This review African market for illumination status person absolutely is not only a pile of Numbers, they intimate feel people lives in Africa for bright longing. "Africa about 90 per cent of the rural population have no electricity supply, many city streets basic no small lamps, the one until the evening, vendors were market lost daytime blatant." Basic lighting with municipal lighting market is the most potential market in Africa, be badly in need of development. From the nets type solar lighting products, however, the most suitable for indoor small lantern, 1 ~ 5 watts sun LED strip light
bulb, suggested to use such, can meet basic lighting lamps are recent demand the product promotion urgently. It is worth noting, African market existing streetlights and China domestic products differences in many places, "Africa is directly tied to the street, and the pole to prevent damage, some street lamp shell also tied wreaths of barbed wire. From there, the installation forms to see street China's existing optical configuration can't achieve illuminative effect, this requires enterprise thinking how to integrate our existing technology, thus and local products and installation conditions were very good combination."
With the rapid development of modern urban Africa, lighting market has not only stopped in satisfy basic lighting demand, still include to low-end market focus on mart, station, bazaar in places such as the lighting the diversification of market demand, can develop products have solar power system, traffic lights, etc. In tourist area and villas and other high-end lighting market, can develop courtyard lamp and high-end street lamp products etc. But against the government of cooperation between public basic lighting markets, products have 1 ~ 5 watts LED tube light
bulb, the sun can only 5 ~ 10 composed of small solar energy lamp of LED lighting system and the 220 volts 600 watts small ac supply system.
- 2011/05/03(火) 16:29:31|
Take what to save you?
At present domestic led industry with the real situation for example, led lamps industry losses of the enterprise, and few are most commonly the enterprise not losses of traditional business support is due. Despite the pain, but think of China has a piece of thousands of billion the vast market pie can eat, and enterprise if packing bluffed good, also can be listed shareholders money folks. The Chinese government to consider the prospect of future LED light
lighting, never hesitate and will stage a series of led lighting industry development support favorable policies and supportive measures, think about it, these entrepreneurs was again alacrity. Anyway, the Chinese government money well, simply tumescent ts16949 depth, continue to persuasion, bet it down! This is Chinese led lamps and lanterns lighting field status -- painful and endure the illusion of happiness. But no serious to think about: the pain and where do you come from? How to eliminate and ease the pain?
The Chinese government in support of LED lighting demonstration, arguably the world's governments in the largest support. "Ten city million lamp" demonstration project billions of yuan has thrown in. But the actual effect how? Many LED lamps running a few months for serious light failure and have to be removed, some lights, though still on, but has gradually dim, for the sake of face, but still dead support! Some well-known enterprise of domestic reportedly lamps, had fielded hundreds team throughout the country "fire" maintenance. People can not help but ask: all these losses and for what reason? Carefully thought and resentful damned is: China become a so-called advanced developed countries LED lighting testing! But many LED lamps production enterprise although became the victim, but is still in the dark. They have actually smug declare: "we have won nearly 2,000 kilometers of LED street demonstration project!" These enterprise become some foreign companies earn big Chinese government, is also earn taxpayers' money tools. Because an enterprise publicity: "we use is the import x countries x company's famous brand, its price led light per watt is as high as nearly thirty yuan. So -- and we a 100 watt led lamps and lanterns 67000 RMB does not calculate price high!"
Our government in each paid $6,000 only lamp, and years down the street lamps, 2,000 kilometers, it will have to pay more than ten million, while the x foreign companies will easily took 50%. Slightly semiconductor knowledge knows that LED light
chip manufacturing cost very cheap foreign advanced technology, manufacturing, it costs are lower.
Use this LED light-source mode foreigners strategy up LED lamps and lanterns, the end of it can be imagined. Foreigners think ah: anyway, you have plenty of money, Chinese government now spend injustice also doesn't matter, Chinese enterprises is not reluctant to spend money r&d? Then you take money to buy lesson! Etc Chinese finally understand came over, large foreign exchange has been foreigners earn away. And our government officials and some experts and scholars, and even more entrepreneurs, still in ocean themselves: our LED lamps and lanterns are used in import light! Can say, the whole industry were foreigners a cheat! As foreigners a began to sell one Chinese encapsulation good LED light source, sheet is this argument, the whole industry will detours. Because no matter what you are, whatever you technology manufacturer how high, if you use this LED light source do lamps and lanterns, you must according to the characteristics of the light source to design LED lamps and lanterns. Then, China was born with dozens of single or even hundreds of star LED light of the same configuration of LED lighting lamps and lanterns.
The structure of these lamps and lanterns is basic same, LED light in a package by LED crystals, shiny surface heat sink by resin lens encapsulation protection and completes the luminous Angle, dozens, hundreds of single source being installed to a printing lines aluminum plate, aluminum plate was mounted to a whole radiator lamp shell. In order to do in LED light light distribution, adds a use PC or PMMA lens made of materials, commonly known as "peanut". Then for waterproof lens again dustproof, add a glass chimney completes the seal. Or don't "peanuts lens" with a light distribution, reflecting cover coating hood open in LED light into thin, light distribution for reflection cavity.
Then loaded on driving power, wiring after electrify, LED lights, everyone was happy. "High-tech" LED lamps and lanterns so development success! But lamp after period of time just found out the problem. Internal junction temperature is too high, light failure too big, point within a few months will light dozens percent decline. So each manufacturer again in racking my brains, left no stone unturned in trying to, how to reduce the plate heat exchanger
light source heat sink to the LED to install printing aluminum plate, to the radiator thermal resistance.
So, there is no alternative, with low thermal resistance of only thermal glue filler. But, low thermal resistance of thermal conductive adhesive in where? Only foreigners have. Therefore, the manufacturer is desperate to price to buy, even a few yuan a grams of high prices also want to buy! But again, this is to earn a foreigner ruthlessly. After has wasted, of lamps and lanterns thermal resistance decreased, but light though still serious decline! Then foreigners said again, you Chinese do lens PC, PMMA materials material was awful, easy ageing and only use light failure in our foreign material to just go. Hence, the manufacturer and import a lot of foreign PC, PMMA materials and thought that can reduce light failure. Little imagine, whether imported glue, or import PC material, cannot fundamentally solved the heat and light failure LED by foreigners, just a cheat money just. So far, I can say that China's enterprise in this foreigner design good light mode of lamps and lanterns, not do LED a real solution to good high power LED lamps and lanterns and light failure problems of heat. This is Chinese LED lighting industry is now sad place.